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What is mindfulness?

Updated: Oct 9, 2023

Mindfulness is a buzzword that's being used more frequently. Some have said that eventually healthcare providers will prescribe mindfulness to their patients, but what does it really mean to be mindful? I wanted to better understand mindfulness, so I wrote this post about it. I hope you find it helpful.

On a spring day, a man and his dog sit in a field overlooking mountain tops.

Table of Contents

Understanding Mindfulness: Definition, Benefits, and Practice

Mindfulness refers to both a state of mind and practice.

As a state of mind, mindfulness involves being fully present and engaged in the current moment, without judgment or attachment to thoughts, emotions, or external stimuli. It is a state of heightened awareness and attention to one's experience as it unfolds moment by moment.

Rather than being caught up in past regrets or future worries, mindfulness encourages individuals to focus on the present experience with a sense of curiosity and acceptance.

As a practice, mindfulness involves intentionally cultivating this state of mind through various techniques, such as meditation, breathing exercises, or simply paying deliberate attention to everyday activities. The practice of mindfulness often begins by focusing on the breath or bodily sensations and gradually expands to include observation of thoughts, emotions, and sensations without getting carried away by them.

The goal of mindfulness is to develop non-reactive awareness and acceptance of one's internal and external experiences. It involves observing thoughts and emotions without judgment, allowing them to come and go without getting caught up in them.

By developing awareness and bringing attention to the present moment, mindfulness aims to foster a deeper understanding of oneself and the world around them. Through mindful activities, individuals can develop a greater sense of clarity, calmness, and insight, leading to improved emotional well-being and an enhanced ability to respond to life's challenges.

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Does Mindfulness Really Work?

Yes, mindfulness has been extensively researched and shown to have a range of positive effects on mental, emotional, and physical well-being. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in various populations and contexts.

Here are some of the benefits and outcomes associated with mindfulness practice:

Stress Reduction: Mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to reduce stress, anxiety, and symptoms of depression. Practicing mindfulness can help individuals develop skills to cope with stress more effectively and enhance their overall resilience.

Emotional Regulation: Mindfulness practice can improve emotional regulation by increasing awareness of emotions, reducing emotional reactivity, and promoting a greater ability to respond skillfully to challenging emotions.

Cognitive Functioning: Mindfulness has been associated with improved cognitive functions, including enhanced attention, concentration, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. Regular mindfulness practice can help individuals become more focused, present, and less prone to distractions.

Relationship Satisfaction: Mindfulness practice can foster improved interpersonal relationships by promoting empathy, compassion, and effective communication. It can enhance emotional attunement and deepen connections with others.

Physical Health: Mindfulness has been linked to better physical health outcomes. It can reduce symptoms and improve quality of life in individuals with chronic pain, lower blood pressure, promote better sleep, and support overall well-being.

Self-Awareness and Self-Compassion: Mindfulness cultivates self-awareness, allowing individuals to gain insight into their thoughts, emotions, and patterns of behavior. It promotes self-compassion and a kind, non-judgmental attitude towards oneself.

Mindfulness is a skill that develops over time with consistent practice. The benefits may vary from person to person, and individual experiences can differ. It's not a quick fix but rather a way of engaging with life and relating to one's experiences with greater awareness and acceptance.

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The Science behind Mindfulness: How it Impacts the Brain and Body

Mindfulness has been extensively studied and applied in various fields, including psychology, medicine, education, and workplace settings. It is often used as a tool for stress reduction, improving focus and concentration, managing emotions, enhancing self-awareness, and promoting overall mental and physical well-being.

The subconscious mind and mindfulness are interconnected in several ways.

While mindfulness primarily involves conscious awareness of the present moment, it can also foster a deeper understanding and exploration of the subconscious mind and its impact on our thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.

The subconscious mind refers to the part of our mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness. It encompasses automatic thoughts, beliefs, memories, emotions, and behavioral patterns that influence our experiences and actions. The subconscious mind plays a significant role in shaping our perceptions, responses, and habits, often outside our conscious control.

Mindfulness can help bring aspects of the subconscious mind into conscious awareness. By cultivating present-moment awareness and non-judgmental observation, mindfulness allows us to become more attuned to the thoughts, emotions, and sensations that arise from our subconscious. It helps us recognize habitual patterns of thinking and emotional reactions that may be rooted in the subconscious mind.

Through mindfulness, we can observe and explore these subconscious patterns with curiosity and non-reactivity. By shining a light of conscious awareness on our subconscious, we can gain insights into our beliefs, motivations, and deeply ingrained thought patterns. This process can lead to a greater understanding of ourselves, our behaviors, and the underlying factors that may contribute to our experiences.

Furthermore, mindfulness can also facilitate a sense of spaciousness and detachment from the contents of the subconscious mind. Rather than becoming entangled or identified with subconscious thoughts and emotions, mindfulness allows us to observe them with a sense of distance and objectivity. This can help reduce reactivity and promote a more skillful and conscious response to our subconscious influences.

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The Origins of Mindfulness

The origins of mindfulness can be traced back to ancient contemplative traditions, particularly within Buddhist teachings.

Buddhism: Mindfulness holds a central place in Buddhism, where it is known as "sati" in Pali and "smriti" in Sanskrit. The teachings of Gautama Buddha, dating back over 2,500 years, emphasize the cultivation of mindfulness as a path to liberation from suffering. Mindfulness meditation, as taught within Buddhist traditions, involves the development of awareness and non-judgmental observation of one's thoughts, emotions, bodily sensations, and the impermanent nature of existence.

Ancient Indian Traditions: Prior to Buddhism, mindfulness practices were already present in ancient Indian contemplative traditions. For instance, practices of self-observation and self-inquiry were prevalent in Hindu traditions, such as Yoga and Vedanta. These practices involved directing attention inward and developing self-awareness.

Contemporary Development: Mindfulness gained wider recognition and popularity beyond traditional Buddhist contexts in the late 20th century. This occurred largely through the efforts of various individuals who integrated mindfulness practices into secular settings, such as psychology and healthcare.

In recent decades, mindfulness has been extensively studied and adopted in various fields, leading to the development of programs like Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), Mindfulness-Based Relapse Prevention (MBRP), and many more. These secular applications of mindfulness have made it accessible to people from diverse backgrounds and beliefs, irrespective of their religious or cultural affiliations.

While mindfulness has roots in ancient contemplative traditions, its contemporary usage and integration into various disciplines have evolved and expanded its scope. Today, mindfulness is embraced as a practice and concept that can be beneficial to individuals in cultivating well-being, reducing stress, and enhancing self-awareness across different cultural and religious contexts.

Person meditating on beach.

Difference Between Mindfulness and Meditation

What is the difference between mindfulness and meditation? Mindfulness and meditation are related concepts but have distinct differences.

Mindfulness is a state of being fully present and engaged in the present moment. It involves intentionally paying attention to the present moment, including one's thoughts, emotions, bodily sensations, and the surrounding environment.

Mindfulness emphasizes being fully engaged in the here and now without getting caught up in past regrets or future worries. It can be practiced not only during formal meditation sessions but also in daily activities.

Meditation is a specific practice or technique that cultivates mindfulness and other qualities of the mind. It involves setting aside dedicated time and space to engage in focused mental exercises. There are various forms of meditation, including mindfulness meditation, loving-kindness meditation, breath awareness meditation, and transcendental meditation, among others.

Meditation often involves adopting a specific posture, focusing attention on a chosen object (such as the breath or a mantra), and maintaining a non-judgmental and open attitude toward one's thoughts and experiences.

Meditation can be seen as a tool or technique used to develop mindfulness, but mindfulness itself can be practiced and applied beyond formal meditation sessions.

Learn More About Mindfulness

Mindfulness Books

There are several excellent books available that offer valuable insights and guidance on mindfulness. These books can serve as valuable resources for deepening your understanding of mindfulness and providing practical guidance for incorporating mindfulness into your life.

Mindfulness is a personal journey, so try to find the book that resonates with you and speaks to your needs and interests.

Here are a few widely acclaimed books that you may find helpful:

"The Miracle of Mindfulness" by Thich Nhat Hanh: Thich Nhat Hanh, a renowned Buddhist monk and mindfulness teacher, presents simple and practical instructions on cultivating mindfulness in everyday life. This book offers insights, meditations, and reflections to help deepen your understanding and practice of mindfulness.

"Full Catastrophe Living" by Jon Kabat-Zinn: Jon Kabat-Zinn, the founder of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program, provides a comprehensive guide to mindfulness practice. He shares mindfulness techniques, mindfulness meditations, and practical advice for managing stress, pain, and illness through mindfulness.

"Wherever You Go, There You Are" by Jon Kabat-Zinn: In this book, Jon Kabat-Zinn explores the art of mindfulness and its application to various aspects of life. He presents mindfulness as a way of being rather than a technique, highlighting the benefits of living fully in the present moment.

"Mindfulness: A Practical Guide to Awakening" by Joseph Goldstein: Joseph Goldstein, a respected mindfulness teacher, delves into the deeper aspects of mindfulness practice and its potential for personal transformation. This book offers teachings, insights, and practical exercises to cultivate mindfulness and develop a more awakened and compassionate life.

"The Power of Now" by Eckhart Tolle: Although not solely focused on mindfulness, this book explores the importance of living in the present moment and transcending the egoic mind. It provides profound insights and practices for cultivating presence and experiencing the transformative power of the present moment.

Mindfulness Online Resources

There are numerous online resources available to learn more about mindfulness. Here are a few reputable platforms and websites that provide valuable information, courses, guided meditations, and resources on mindfulness: offers a wealth of resources on mindfulness, including articles, guided meditations, podcasts, and online courses. They cover various aspects of mindfulness practice, its benefits, and applications in different areas of life.

Greater Good Science Center: The Greater Good Science Center, based at the University of California, Berkeley, provides science-backed information on mindfulness, happiness, compassion, and well-being. Their website features articles, videos, and practical resources for incorporating mindfulness into daily life.

UCLA Mindful Awareness Research Center: The UCLA Mindful Awareness Research Center (MARC) offers free guided meditations, podcasts, and online resources for learning mindfulness. Their website provides a range of resources suitable for beginners and those with more experience.

Headspace: Headspace is a popular meditation app and website that offers guided meditations, mindfulness exercises, and courses. It provides a structured and accessible approach to learning and practicing mindfulness.

Insight Timer: Insight Timer is a meditation app and online platform with a vast collection of guided meditations, courses, and talks on mindfulness. It offers a diverse range of teachers and styles, making it a valuable resource for exploring different approaches to mindfulness.

The Center for Mindfulness at the University of Massachusetts Medical School: The Center for Mindfulness offers online courses, workshops, and resources based on the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program developed by Jon Kabat-Zinn. Their website provides information on mindfulness, research, and training opportunities.

These online resources provide a range of information, guided practices, and courses to support your exploration and understanding of mindfulness.

Remember to approach these resources with an open mind and find what resonates with you personally.


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